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The following TED talk, given by Simon Sinek, describes how it is that great leaders inspire action, why some people are able to achieve things, when others are not.  He explains the brilliant, biologically based “Golden Circle”, a new way of looking at how people approach what they do.  He also discusses the Law of Diffusion of Innovation, and weaves it all together with several brilliantly told examples, from Apple computer, to the Wright Brothers, to Martin Luther King, Jr.]

Here is the video, with my highest recommendations (it’ll change the way you look at what you do).  Beneath that, the “rough” written transcript.

How do you explain why some people are able to achieve things that seem impossible?

How is it that some companies, like Apple, year after year, always seem to lead innovation? Why is it that Martin Luther King led the civil rights movement? Why is it that the Wright Brothers were the ones that discovered controlled, powered man flight when others were more qualified and better funded?

A few years ago I discovered something that changed my life, a pattern that I found in all the great leaders (individuals and companies). They all think in the same way, and it’s the opposite of everybody else.

It’s probably the world’s simplest idea (all I did was codify it). I call it the “Golden Circle”.

How – in the center, surrounded by “Why”, surrounded by a larger circle, “What”.

Simon Sinek: finding the why behind the what and how, how great leaders inspire action

It explains why some leaders are able to inspire where others aren’t.

Everybody knows “what” they do 100%. Some know how they do it. But very very few people or organizations know WHY they do it.

And I don’t mean to make a profit, that’s the result. It’s the “why”, why do you do it, why do you get out of bed in the morning, and why should people care.

Inspired organizations and people all think, act, and communicate from the inside out.

People don’t buy what you do, they buy why you do it.

The Why, How, What model is actually grounded in biology (not psychology).

If you were to look at a cross section of the brian from top down, you’d see that it corresponds perfectly to the golden circle.

Starting at the top, our “newest” (evolutionary) brain, our Homo-Sapien Brain, called our Neocortex – it’s our what, it’s responsible for all our rational, analytical thought, and language.

The middle two section make up our Limbic brains, which is for feelings, trust, and loyalty, it’s also responsible for all human behavior and decision making. It has no capacity for language.

In other words, when we communicate from the outside in, yes, people can understand vast amounts of complicated information, features and benefits and facts and figures, it just doesn’t drive behavior.

When we communicate from the inside out. we’re talking directly to the part of the brain that controls behavior, and then we allow people to rationalize it with the tangible things we say and do.

This is where gut decisions come from. It’s why you can give someone all the facts and figures and they’ll say that they know what all the facts and the details say, but it just doesn’t ‘feel’ right.

Why would they use that verb?

Because the part of the brain that controls decision making doesn’t control language.

Sometimes we say we’re leading with our heart, or our soul. That’s all happening in your limbic brain.

But if you don’t’ know why you do what you do, then how will you ever get someone to buy into it, and be loyal, or want to be a part of what it is that you do.

After all, the goal is not just to get people to buy that need what you have, but to believe what you believe. The goal is not just to hire people who need a job, but who believe what you believe.

If you hire people who just need a job, they’ll work for your money. But if you hire people that believe what you believe, they’ll work for you with blood and sweat and tears.

There’s no better example than with the Wright Brothers.

Nobody knows, anymore, who Samuel Pierpont Langley is.

When you ask why people fail, they always give you some permutation of the same three things.

  1. Undercapitalized
  2. The wrong people
  3. Unfavorable market conditions

Langley was given $50K by the War department to figure out this flying machine. Held seat at Harvard and worked at Smithsonian. He was extremely well connected. He had access to the greatest funds and the greatest minds. He hired the greatest minds available, and the market conditions were fantastic. The NY Times followed him everywhere, everyone was rooting for him. But we’ve never heard of Samuel Pierpont Langley.

A few hundred miles away in Dayton Ohio, Orville and Wilber Wright, who had none of this “recipe for success”. They paid for it all from the proceeds of their humble bicycle shop.

not a single person on the Wright Brothers team had a college education. Not even Orville or Wilber. And the NY Times ignored them.

But they were driven by a cause, by a purpose, by a belief. They believed that if they could figure out this flying machine, it would change the course of the world.

Samuel Peirpont Langley was different. He wanted to be rich, and he wanted to be famous.

He was in pursuit of the result, of the riches.

In the end, the people who believed in the dream, worked with blood and sweat and tears, the others, just for the paycheck.

Every time the Wright brothers would go out, they would have to take 5 sets of parts, because that’s how many times they would crash before they came home for supper.

Eventually on dec 17th of 1903, they took flight. And no one was there to even experience it. We found out later.

To prove that Langley wasn’t in it for the right thing, the day he found out that they had beat him to it, he quit. He could have said “that’s an amazing discovery, and I will improve upon it”.

But he wasn’t first, he didn’t get rich, he didn’t get famous, and so he quit.

People don’t buy what you do, they buy why you do it. If you talk about what you believe, you will attract those who believe what you believe.

microsoft sells the “what”, and sometimes the “how”, but Apple sells the “why”.

Which is important because the “law of diffusion of innovation.”

The law of diffusion of innovation: simon sinek - how leaders inspire action

The lay of diffusion of innovation, shows that the adoption curve (a typical bell curve) can be segmented out into the following sections.

Of all our population:

  1. 2.5% innovators
  2. 13.5% early adopters
  3. 34% early majority
  4. 34% late majority
  5. 16% laggards

We all sit at various places at various times along this scale.

If you want mass market appeal, mass market success or acceptance of an idea (the two 34% sides), you cannot have it until you have achieve this tipping point, between 15% and 18% market penetration.

I love to ask businesses, what is your conversion, and they respond proudly 10%. Well you can trip over 10%. There’s always 10% who will just “get it”, in fact, that’s how we describe them.

The problem is what 10%.

It’s this 13% that matters, as Jeffery Moore describes in “Crossing the Chasm”.

The early majority will not try something, until somebody else tries it first.

These early guys are comfortable doing that, living intuitively, based on what they BELIEVE about the world (the why), not just what’s available (the what).

These are those who stand in line for 6 hours to buy an iPhone.

people don’t buy what you do, they buy why you do it. In fact what you do, simply proves what you blieve (belief pyramid, also why judged by works, our works, or our “what” is the clearest manifestation of our strongest beliefs).

People will do the things that prove what they believe. They wanted to show that they would be first, because that spoke to a value that they believed about themselves. People don’t buy what you do, they buy why you do it.

Famous failure about the principle of the Diffusion of Innovation.

Tivo. We said before that the recipe for success is the right money, the right people, and the right market conditions. They were the first, they were the best, they were extremely well funded, the market conditions were perfect, it became a verb. But they’re a commercial failure. They’ve never made money. And when they went IPO, their stock was about 30-40 and since then it’s never been above 10, usually below 6.

Tivo’s marketing strategy was “we let you pause live TV, rewind live TV, and we watch your viewing habits and adjust without you having to do anything”. It was all about what. And market skeptics said we’re not interested.

What if they would have said “if you’re the type of person that likes to have total control over your life, we have a product for you.”

People don’t buy what you do, they buy why you do it, and what you do is simply the proof, of what you believe.

In summer of 1963, 250K people showed up to hear Dr. King speak. There were no invitations, there was no website to check the date. He wasn’t the only great orator, he wasn’t the only person to have these ideas, and some of his ideas were even bad. But what he did, was to go around and simply talk about what he believed. “I believe…”

And people who believed what he believed took his cause and told more people. To the point where 250k showed up on the right day to hear him speak.

How many people showed up for him? None. They showed up for themselves. it’s what they believed about America that got them to drive 8 hours on a bus to stand in the sun to Washington DC in the middle of August. it’s what they believed. It wasn’t black vs. white. 25% audience were white.

He believed that there were two kinds of laws in this world, those that are made by a higher power, and those that are made by man. And it’s not until those that are made by man are consistent with the laws that are made by the higher power that we will live in a just world. It just so happened that the civil rights movement was the perfect thing to help him bring his cause to life. He gave the “I have a dream” speech, not the “I have a plan” speech.

Listen to politicians now with their 12 point plans, they’re not inspiring anybody.

There are leaders, and there are those who lead.

Leaders are those who hold a position of power or authority. But those who lead are those who inspire us. Wether within organizations, we follow those who lead, not because we have to, but because we want to. Not for them, but for ourselves.

And it’s those who start with why, who have the ability to inspire those around them or find others to inspire them.

Simon Sinek - TED talk: How great leaders inspire action, and the Golden Circle

Simon Sinek: How great leaders inspire action


24 replies
  1. Dan
    Dan says:

    wowsers! I loved this presentation, & I had heard about the ‘why’ before but never understood it. What a TED talk, absolutely amazing stuff. Very inspiring.

  2. Debbie
    Debbie says:

    This TED speech was so inspiring to me that I am rewriting my mission statement and my sales page.
    Thank you Simon for relaying truth in such a heartfelt tone. I am a believer because you believe.

  3. vishy
    vishy says:

    when you believe, you appreciate, convince and impress yourself and the buyers. You will reach your goal no matter what. All you need to do is believe and WORK HARD.

  4. Hua Wen
    Hua Wen says:

    Thank you Simon.I watched the video of your speech on TED. It’s a very vauble imformation to me ,almost to everyone.You told me that maybe it’s not only a Steve Jobs in the world.

  5. Julie H
    Julie H says:

    This sums up perfectly how I plan to develop the social enterprise businesses I have just created and is inspiring in its simplicity. Is there a Count me in in UK?

  6. Charlene
    Charlene says:

    This design is wicked! You definitely know how to keep a reader amused.
    Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start
    my own blog (well, almost…HaHa!) Fantastic job. I really enjoyed what you had to say,
    and more than that, how you presented it. Too cool!

  7. frontier internet
    frontier internet says:

    Hi there! I know this is somewhat off-topic however I needed to ask.

    Does operating a well-established blog such as yours take a lot of work?
    I am completely new to writing a blog but I do
    write in my diary on a daily basis. I’d like to start a blog so I will be able to share my experience and feelings online. Please let me know if you have any kind of suggestions or tips for brand new aspiring blog owners. Thankyou!

  8. LJ
    LJ says:

    Should be “Why in the center (NOT How – in the center), surrounded by How (NOT surrounded by “Why”), surrounded by a larger circle, What.”

  9. Charlie G.
    Charlie G. says:

    The comment “people dont buy what you do they buy the why you do it” is totally bogus and I feel like I’m watching an episIVode of care bears when I read that.

    My experience has been after having closed thousands of sales over the years that people want an excellent product or service that best fits their needs. I could hate my job and still make money. Remember the soup nazi from Seinfeld? People ate his food because his food was good … period. People hire a company to paint their house because they think that company will do the best job for the price they are willing to pay.

    Why do we all work? To make money. I do agree that having a higher purpose for your work other than making money is great but putting that into practice with employees is harder said than done. If you think employees like working for you so much consider not paying them and see how long they stick around.

    I feel like a better focus on all this would be how to inspire INNOVATION. There are a lot of jobs out there that require zero creativity or innovation. The Apple company succeeds when its prople innovate and so there is built in job security for those who do that. The why at that point isnt really worshipping customers needs and trying to help them, but really more like “if I come up with something cool Steve Jobs will think Im awesome and I might even get a promotion and make more money!”

    Unless its humanitarian or NGO work like save the children all businesses are in it to MAKE MONEY. Who are we kidding? Does anyone think Steve Jobs would’ve given away all his money and work for minimum wage and be more concerned about customers petty technology needs over feeding his own family?

    Great leaders inspire action because they show employees how such behavior can improve THEIR OWN LIVES not necessarily the lives of those “they serve”

    Im really just not impressed with the “selling your employees” on putting the needs of customers above their own because thats naive thinking. People are selfish creatures and very rarely do you find somdone like a mother theresa who actually dedicated her whole life to serving others. Real service is when you do something for someone and dont get paid to do it. Business is business and it is about the money anyone who thinks otherwise is probably a member of the 95% club of failed businesses who dont make it to ten years.

    I apologize to all those who read this post because its lenghy and I probably shouldve stopped typing a few paragraphs ago. God bless


Trackbacks & Pingbacks

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  4. […] Both experiences reconfirmed for me the importance of the core questions posed in my original blog posts – what is the purpose of education in our country (or, WHY are we educating the way we are) and the natural follow-up – what should education look like? It makes sense then that two people that I work with closely and with whom I share a common vision recently shared with me this TED talk by Simon Sinek. […]

  5. […] Sinek in his Ted Talk and understanding of The Golden Circle explains it very well. He says that all the greatest individuals throughout history did things […]

  6. […] watched the TED talk by Simon Sinek about “How great leaders inspire action”. Here is a link to the video and also to a written synopsis (if you would rather read it than listen to it). This […]

  7. […] the inspiring book START WITH WHY: How Great Leaders Inspire Action. This book and the idea of the GOLDEN CIRCLE was so well received that Simon gave a lecture that was recorded by TED: Ideas Worth […]

  8. […] Be quiet.  Listen and think.  Step out of the data flow.  Get your bearings.  Hear your own voice.  Remember your own “why“. […]

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